High blood sugar: what it is, causes, reference values ​​and how to lower it

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Elia Tabuenca García
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Glycemia. We all know that it is an important blood parameter to monitor. But what exactly is it about?

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What is blood sugar? Why do you need to keep the values ​​under control, especially during pregnancy? And how to lower it in case of hyperglycemia?

Glycemia. We all know it's an important one blood parameter to keep under control. But what exactly is it about? what are the reference values and how lower it if necessary?


What is blood sugar?

The term glycaemia means the concentration glucose, or sugars, inside the blood. This substance is essential for our body as it nourishes the cells, it is important, however, that it always remains within a certain range of values, especially to avoid a situation of hyperglycemia, a potentially dangerous condition for health.

Blood sugar, what are the reference values

In a healthy person, reference blood glucose values ​​are considered to be the ones that go from 60 to 130 mg / dL. Consider that blood sugar rises after meals e decreases with fasting, consequently immediately after eating it can reach up to 130-150 mg / dl while fasting usually ranges from 74 to 106 or 100 (depending on the method used).

L‘American Diabetes Association consider glycemic values ​​that indicate a probable situation of diabetes those starting from 126 mg / dL, if instead it exceeds 200 then we are in the presence of a situation of diabetes already overt to be treated medically.

Our body has a regulation system that allows it to keep the blood sugar level fairly constant throughout the day. To do this, a series of hormones intervene, the most important and known is undoubtedly insulin, with its hypoglycemic action.

In summary, normal blood glucose values ​​are:

  • 60 to 130 mg / dL
  • After meals: maximum 130-150
  • Without food: 60 to 99 mg / dl

High blood sugar, causes

There can be many causes of an increase in blood sugar, for example a 'unregulated nutrition, sedentary lifestyle, a familiarity with the problem but obviously in some cases behind there is the presence of chronic diseases such as diabetes. Then there are physiological conditions, such as the pregnancy, which naturally predispose to an increase in blood sugar (even in this case, however, it must be monitored and kept under control to avoid the onset of gestational diabetes).

Risk factors are also overweight, for an age over 45 and hypertension. Even a period of strong stress it can negatively affect blood glucose values.

Symptoms of an increase in blood sugar may be increased thirst and hunger as well as one increased urge to urinate.

How to lower your blood sugar

Anyone with high blood sugar will need to first consult your doctor who will give him all the necessary advice to keep her at bay as well as, possibly, a real therapy calibrated on the individual situation.

You can act on your diet in the first place. In fact, there are general indications on the choice of foods that can almost always be useful. Proper nutrition it can then also be supported by the use of some natural remedies from the hypoglycemic effect as well as from the right amount of physical activity. In some cases, obviously, on the advice of the doctor, insulin injections are necessary.

Let's start with nutrition, often those who have to deal with a high blood sugar are asked to pay attention to the consumption of foods with a high glycemic index. But what is meant by glycemic index?

Glycemic index

THEglycemic index (GI) is a useful parameter to the classification of foods based on their effect on glucose levels in the blood. Foods are divided into High GI, Medium GI and Low GI. This concretely means that while the former are digested and metabolized quickly causing glycemic peaks, the latter have more contained peaks while the latter are digested slowly and consequently gradually increase blood sugar.

The benchmark for all is the glycemic index of glucose which corresponds to 100, the maximum score. We consider:

  • Low GI foods: those with a score equal to or less than 55
  • Cibi to medium IG: those with a score between 56 and 70
  • High GI foods: those with scores higher than 70

Also important to know that the same food can have two different GIs depending on the cooking method with which it is prepared.

- high GI foods which increase blood sugar 

  • Refined bread and pasta (and all derivatives)
  • Sugars
  • Fruit rich in sugar
  • Honey
  • Rice
  • Oats
  • Rye
  • Potatoes
  • Carbonated drinks
  • Fruit juices
  • Butter
  • Cream
  • Lard

So many people still believe that replacing sugar with gods artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame and saccharin, both a good solution to avoid blood sugar problems. In fact, research has shown how these sweeteners go to alter the metabolism leading on the contrary to a increased blood sugar and in some cases even to develop a pre-diabetes condition.

Recommended foods in case of high blood sugar

  • Food rich in fiber
  • Vegetables
  • Fruit (not too sugary)
  • Extra virgin olive oil
  • Foods rich in Omega 3
  • Orzo
  • Whole grains
  • Legumes
  • White and lean meat
  • Latte
  • Yogurt
  • Oregano and rosemary
  • Seeds
  • Bitter cocoa
  • almonds


In addition to what to eat, in case of high blood sugar, experts recommend take the right amount of calories throughout the day and to do at least 5 meals a day.

Foods and natural remedies for high blood sugar


It has been proven by several scientific researches that cinnamon it helps reduce blood sugar as well as triglycerides and cholesterol bad. You can take a cinnamon tea or sprinkle it on your favorite dishes or use it every morning by pouring it into your coffee, tea, infusions or vegetable drink. It also lends itself well to making smoothies or extracts.

Green tea

According to research a few years ago, a substance found in green tea, l’epigallocatechina-3-gallate, helps reduce blood sugar levels. According to Penn University scholars, every time we eat we should drink one and a half cups of green tea with the intent of keeping blood sugar at bay.

Garlic and onion

Garlic is also a natural remedy for high blood sugar as well as onion. Their skills can be exploited in the kitchen or, in the case of'garlic, there are gods specific supplements based on its active ingredients useful not only for sugar management but also more generally for the good health of the blood and the cardiovascular system.

american ginseng

Not to be confused with Korean ginseng, the American one has a number of active ingredients that reduce the absorption of carbohydrates and promote the release of insulin.


This plant known botanically as Gymnema silvestre contains substances useful to reduce the absorption of glucose in the intestine and which at the same time stimulate the activity of pancreatic cells that produce insulin.


Myrtle is also one plant with action similar to that of Gimnema as it inhibits the action of an enzyme that transforms complex sugars into simple sugars and allows their absorption in the form of glucose.

Physical Activity

Even if you want to keep your blood sugar at bay, it is good to move. Moderate but constant physical activity over time it is useful to keep blood sugars at the right levels. Just a brisk walk for at least 30 minutes a day is enough. To know more i rimedi naturali i use to have a bad glycemia read also: Walk 10 minutes after meals and you will get this unexpected benefit for your blood sugar

Other tips for lowering blood sugar

Other good tips to keep blood sugar at bay are avoiding a sedentary lifestyle, maintain the right weight, do not smoke or drink alcohol, limit the use of coffee, drink a lot of water but also learning how to manage stress.

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